To enable Barcode in SharePoint 2013, you can go to Central Administration > Security > Information Policy > Configure Information Policy Configuration > Select Barcodes
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Ensure that Barcode is being enabled.
In the Document Library of your site > Library Settings > Information Management Policy Settings > Click on Document
Viewing the Properties of a uploaded file will contain the Barcode. Unfortunately, you can’t change the value of the barcode since its auto generated by SharePoint. Coding is required to make changes. See microsoft msdn.
Alternatively, you will need to build a custom application pages that prints out the specific barcode in the barcode font type based on a provided value.